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Nota IMPORTANTE: todas las palabras, frases, ejemplos, etc. que utilice para la resolución de las
actividades deberán estar marcadas en el texto y con referencia a la línea en que aparecen.
Ejemplo: or (línea 2 ) conector de opción: de inflamación o infección
1) Lea el texto e identifique una frase sustantiva central. Escríbala en castellano (4p)
Hepatitis is an inflammation— a kind of irritation — or infection of the liver. If the liver is affected by or
gets scarred from inflammation or infection, it can't effectively do all of its jobs.
There are different ways you can get hepatitis. The two most common forms are:
1. Toxic hepatitis: This can happen if someone drinks a lot of alcohol, takes certain illegal drugs or
medicines, or is exposed to poisons.
2. Viral hepatitis: There are lots of hepatitis viruses — from hepatitis A virus to hepatitis G. Though the
viruses differ, they have one thing in common: They cause infection and inflammation that is
harmful to liver cells.
Hepatitis A, B, and C are the most common types of viral hepatitis.
Hepatitis A is the most common type of hepatitis to get. The virus lives in poop (feces) from people who
have the infection. That's why it's so important to wash your hands before eating and after going to the
bathroom. Vegetables, fruits, and shellfish (such as shrimp and lobster) also can carry hepatitis if they were
harvested in contaminated water or in unsanitary conditions. Hepatitis A affects people for a short time,
and when they recover, it does not come back.
The following will help keep people safe from hepatitis A:
regular hand washing, especially after going to the bathroom or diapering a baby, and before eating
wash fruits and vegetables before eating them
do not eat raw shellfish, such as raw oysters
get the vaccine for hepatitis A
Getting vaccinated helps a person's body make antibodies that protect against hepatitis infection. The
hepatitis A vaccine is now given to all kids when they're between 1 and 2 years old, and to people who are
traveling to countries where the virus could get into the food and water supply. The vaccine is also
recommended for kids who have blood clotting problems or chronic liver disease.
Hepatitis B and C get passed from person to person the same ways that HIV does — through direct contact
with infected body fluids. Hepatitis B and C are even more easily passed in fluids and needles than HIV.
This can happen through sexual contact and by sharing needles (used to inject illegal drugs) that have been
contaminated with infected blood. Sometimes mothers with hepatitis B or C pass the virus along to their
babies when they're born. Hepatitis B and C also can get passed in ways you might not expect — such as
getting a manicure or pedicure with unsterilized nail clippers or other dirty instruments. Getting a tattoo, if
dirty needles are used, is another way someone can get hep B or C.
2) Redacte con sus palabras lo que entiende de cada sección. (18p)
3) Marque a lo largo del texto un adjetivo, un comparativo y un superlativo si hubiera. (12p)
4) Identifique un ejemplo de cada tiempo verbal (presente/pasado/futuro) si hubiera. (10p)
5) Identifique en el texto una oración en voz pasiva y escríbala en castellano. Explíquela. (10p)
6) Indique las referencias de tres de las frases o expresiones en negrita. (12p)
7) Elija tres terminaciones –ing del texto y escriba como las leería en castellano o su categoría
(adjetivo, sustantivo, verbo) en la frase en la que se encuentran. (12p)
8) Elija tres terminaciones –ed del texto y escriba en castellano como las leería en la frase en la que se
encuentran. (12p)
9) Identifique un ejemplo de modo imperativo si lo hubiere y escríbalo en castellano coherente. (5p)
10) Identifique un ejemplo de verbo modal si lo hubiere. Indique su función dónde se encuentra. (5p)