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agriculture and trade, many people specialized
in creation of pottery, metalwork, and jewelry,
trade occurred with Central Asia, Arabia, and
Mesopotamia; had a writing system and
possibly a single authority in control
Vedic Period: most information comes from
sacred writings called Vedas; most people
lived in small villages ruled by regional
leaders called rajas; society divided into social
classes (varnas), castes were smaller divisions
of varnas, worshipped gods through fire
sacrifices and chanting of sacred hymns
Section Summary
1. Students should underline gold, granite
and precious stones and write “rocky
landscape made farming difficult.”
2. in around 1700 BC when Egypt’s Middle
Kingdom collapsed
3. Students should underline customs in art
and architecture, built pyramids, and used
the hieroglyphic writing system and write
4. Students should circle copper, gold,
precious stones and iron, and write “iron.”
Section Summary
Chapter 4: Ancient India
and China
1. Monsoons brought floods that deposited
rich soil in the Indus River Valley. This
rich soil enabled farming, but monsoons
that came too late or brought too little rain
sometimes resulted in famine.
2. Its first system of writing was developed.
3. Students should underline pottery,
metalwork, and jewelry.
4. Castes determined what job a person could
hold and whom a person could marry.
1. India: Indus River Valley; China: Chang
Jiang and Huang He river valleys. Land
near rivers was fertile, making farming
2. Ancient India developed a caste system.
China did not. Because one’s caste
determined the type of work and spouse a
person could have, life in ancient India
was much different from life in ancient
3. Hinduism and Confucianism both honor
the family and ancestors. Hinduism
focuses on reincarnation. Confucianism
focuses on restoring peace to society.
4. Student answers will vary, but students
should understand that people’s actions
are important to both, whether it is to
follow the Eightfold Path or achieve
balance. Buddhism’s goal is
enlightenment, while Daoism’s is
harmony with the universe. Attaining
either enlightenment or harmony requires
work by an individual.
Taking Notes
Origin: Hinduism—no founder, evolved over
thousands of years; Jainism—founded around
500 BC by Hindus who broke away from the
Beliefs: Hinduism—belief in Brahman, atman,
devas, reincarnation, karma, moksha, dharma;
Jainism—beliefs of Hinduism plus ahimsa
Texts: Hinduism—Vedas, sacred epics like
Ramayana and Mahabharata; Jainism—none
Practices: Hinduism—reading Vedas,
offerings to devas, yoga, meditation,
pilgrimage; Jainism— nonviolence, tell the
truth, avoid stealing
Section Summary
1. Student should underline “the eternal spirit
that created and preserves the world.”
Brahman is all-encompassing so because
everyone and everything is part of it,
Brahman cannot be understood.
Taking Notes
Indus Valley: most information comes from
excavations of the cities Harappa and Mohenjo
Daro; cities were well-planned and carefully
laid out, often contained a citadel that guarded
government buildings; economy focused on
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2. Students should underline “the atman will
be released from the body and reborn in
3. Students should circle “Rama and Sita”
and write: “their devotion to each other
and obedience to their dharma.”
4. Students should circle: the Vedas, the
Upanishads, the Ramayana, the
Mahabharata, and the Bhagavad Gita.
The epic poems are different because they
are believed to have been written by
people. The Vedas and Upanishads are
believed to have been revealed, not
5. Jains believed that the rituals of Hinduism
were unnecessary because moksha could
be achieved through actions instead.
Section Summary
1. Students should underline Chang Jiang, or
Yangzi, and the Huang He, or Yellow
River. Rich soil, loess, and the protection
of mountains, hills, and deserts helped the
development of civilizations.
2. People used oracle bones to ask advice
from their dead ancestors.
3. Iron was used to make stronger objects at
a lower cost, new farming techniques
resulted in food surpluses, roads and
canals improved transportation; coins were
introduced and so were chopsticks,
making daily life easier.
4. Both Confucianism and the religion of the
Shang focus on honoring ancestors.
Chapter 5: Classical
Taking Notes
Origins: Siddhartha Gautama, around 500 BC
Teachings: Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path,
Middle Way, nirvana; three sects: Theravada,
Mahayana, Tibetan
Spread: throughout India, via missionaries and
trade to Central Asia, Southeast Asia, China,
Korea and Japan
1. poetry, drama, and history
2. Alexander the Great conquered Greece
and lands ruled by Persia. A new empire
was created in which cultures from these
different lands were mixed together.
3. Possible answer: Each polis was
somewhat isolated from other city-states,
so it developed its government without
influence from others and according to its
citizens’ needs.
Section Summary
1. Buddhism started on the Indian
subcontinent in the 500s BC.
2. Desires that cause suffering can be
overcome by following the Eightfold Path.
3. Students should underline “Theravada,
Mahayana, and Tibetan Buddhism”
4. missionaries and trade
Taking Notes
first Greeks: Mycenaeans were first Greeks,
greatly influenced by earlier civilization of the
Minoans on Crete; worked as traders; warlike
city-states: also called polis, basic political
unit in Greek life, each developed
independently of its neighbors, built around an
acropolis, contained an agora, gymnasium,
public bath, walls for defense, surrounded by
farmers’ fields
Taking Notes
Shang dynasty: strong monarchy, large army,
governors ruled distant parts; developed
writing, advances in bronze working, built
huge structures, astronomers created a precise
calendar based on moon cycles, created one of
the world’s first systems of money
Zhou dynasty: ruled by Mandate of Heaven;
used iron, population grew, new farming
techniques, cities grew, built roads and canals,
introduced coins and use of chopsticks
mythology: explained where the Greeks came
from, how they should live, and how to cope
with an uncertain world; twelve of the most
influential gods and goddesses lived on Mount
Olympus; gods were flawed and
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c. People believed gods controlled all
aspects of life; priests had high status;
kings led religious ceremonies
3. a. world’s first known writing system
b. provided building materials and wealth
c. possible answer: No, it created
4. a. land that includes different kingdoms
and people under one rule; the Akkadians
b. Akkadians, Amorites, Babylonians
c. first written code of laws; very
5. cuneiform; wheel, plow, bronze weapons;
geometry, math system based on 60;
ziggurats, cylinder seals
6. Entries should describe the daily life and
activities of a Sumerian scribe.
Answer Key
3. He wanted to make his wife less
4. Students will underline “trade” and
“sailors,” and write “the landscape made
farming difficult and the Phoenicians lived
near the sea.”
Section Assessment
1. a. a group of several tribes that spoke
related languages; by tracing modern
b. use of horse-drawn chariot
c. possible answer—agree; iron weapons
allowed for expansion of empire
2. a. Chaldean king; built Hanging Gardens
b. Assyrians—iron weapons, effective
government structure, library in Nineveh;
Chaldeans—Hanging Gardens, developed
calendar, advances in astronomy
c. possible answer—yes; used terror to
gain power, build empire, keep order
3. a. Egypt, Greece, Italy, Sicily, Spain;
glass, slaves, ivory works, timber, purple
b. Resources were limited and trade
allowed them to import necessary items.
c. more flexible, influenced later alphabet
4. Hittite—military strength, new
technology; fell to Sea Peoples;
Assyrian—military strength, brutality; too
big to control; Chaldean—captured
Nineveh; Persians conquered Babylon
5. Letters might argue for the Code of
Hammurabi, calendar, alphabet, sea trade.
Taking Notes
Indo-Europeans: tribes who invaded
Mesopotamia, may have originated in steppes
north of the Black Sea, driven out by drought,
conflicts, or a lack of resources; Hittites: a
warlike Indo-European tribe, developed in
Southwest Asia, settled in Asia Minor, which
is now Turkey, conquered the surrounding
people to build a strong empire, used a threeman, horse-drawn war chariot, conquered
Babylon, first people in the region to master
ironworking; Assyrians: originally from
northern Mesopotamia, built an empire, which
included all of Mesopotamia and parts of Asia
Minor and Egypt, fierce warrior society,
masters of siege warfare, kept conquered
peoples in line through the use of fear, created
the library in Nineveh; Chaldeans: city of
Babylon the capital of their new Babylonian
empire, built Hanging Gardens, developed a
calendar, charted stars; Phoenicians: built
wealthy trading society, created alphabet that
was ancestor of our alphabet
Taking Notes
Key Events: God made a promise to Abraham,
God told Moses to leave Egypt, Exodus; God
gave Moses the Ten Commandments,
Hebrews name their land Israel, David makes
Jerusalem the capital, Solomon builds a temple
there, Diaspora starts; Key Teachings:
monotheism, follow the Ten Commandments,
obey the law, treat others kindly and with
fairness, do what is right and proper
Section Summary
1. Students will circle “speaking related
2. Students will underline well-armed
cavalry, split up and resettled the groups
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Answer Key
Evaluación de la sección
1. a. vientos estacionales; aire cálido y
lluvias fuertes en verano; aire fresco y
seco en invierno
b. Los depósitos de las inundaciones
enriquecían el suelo, las lluvias brindaban
agua para los cultivos.
c. posible respuesta: Las montañas
mantenían alejados a los invasores.
2. a. calles en forma de cuadrícula; edificios
rodeados por una ciudadela; pozos
comunitarios; sistema público de drenaje
b. buena planificación; uniformidad de las
c. posible respuesta: Sí, eso nos enseñará
mucho sobre la sociedad del Indo
3. a. clases sociales durante el período
b. afirmaban que el orden del universo
sólo se podía mantener a través de sus
c. posible respuesta: sociedad dividida
4. Valle del Indo: arqueología, sociedad del
Indo, los historiadores no pueden descifrar
el sistema de escritura; védico: los Vedas,
origen de los arios, pruebas contradictorias
5. En sus descripciones, los estudiantes
deben demostrar que conocen la geografía
de la India y el efecto de los ríos, las
montañas, las zonas geográficas y los
Tomar notas
Valle del Indo: la mayor parte de la
información proviene de las excavaciones de
las ciudades de Harappa y Mohenjo Daro; las
ciudades estaban bien planificadas y
distribuidas cuidadosamente, a menudo
contenían una ciudadela que protegía los
edificios de gobierno; la economía se
concentraba en la agricultura y el comercio,
muchas personas se especializaban en la
alfarería, la metalurgia y la joyería, se
comerciaba con Asia Central, Arabia y
Mesopotamia; tenían un sistema de escritura y
posiblemente una sola autoridad tenía el
Período védico: la mayor parte de la
información proviene de las escrituras
sagradas llamadas Vedas; la mayoría de las
personas vivían en pequeñas aldeas
gobernadas por líderes regionales llamados
rajás; sociedad dividida en clases sociales
(varnas), las castas eran divisiones más
pequeñas de las varnas, adoraban a los dioses
a través de sacrificios de fuego y el canto de
himnos sagrados
Resumen de la sección
1. Los monzones causaban inundaciones que
depositaban suelo rico en el valle del río
Indo. Este suelo rico permitía la
agricultura, pero los monzones que
tardaban mucho en llegar o traían muy
poca lluvia a veces provocaban
2. Se desarrolló su primer sistema de
3. Los estudiantes deben subrayar alfarería,
metalurgia y joyería.
4. Las castas determinaban qué trabajo podía
hacer una persona y con quién se podía
Tomar notas
Origen: hinduismo: sin fundador, evolucionó
durante miles de años; jainismo: fundado
alrededor de 500 a.C. por hindúes que se
separaron de la religión
Creencias: hinduismo: creencia en el
Brahmán, el atman, el devas, la reencarnación,
el karma, el moksha, el dharma; jainismo:
creencias del hinduismo más el ahimsa
Textos: hinduismo: los Vedas, poemas épicos
sagrados como el Ramayana y el
Mahabharata; jainismo: ninguno
Prácticas: hinduismo: lectura de los Vedas,
ofrendas a los devas, yoga, meditación,
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peregrinación; jainismo: no violencia, decir la
verdad, evitar robar
Answer Key
3. a. no violencia; los jainistas son
vegetarianos, tienen trabajos en los que no
se daña a los animales
b. similares: practican el ahimsa, buscan
el moksha; diferentes: los monjes viven al
aire libre, barren el suelo por el que
caminan antes de pisarlo
4. hinduismo: más ritual, menos énfasis en el
ahimsa; jainismo: menos énfasis en el
ritual, practican más el ahimsa, los monjes
renuncian a todas las posesiones; ambos:
buscan el moksha
5. Los estudiantes deben definir una de las
enseñanzas de la sección con detalles y
ejemplos del texto.
Resumen de la sección
1. Los estudiantes deben subrayar “el espíritu
eterno que creó y preserva al mundo”. El
Brahmán abarca todo porque todos y todo
son parte de él, el Brahmán no se puede
2. Los estudiantes deben subrayar “el atman
será liberado del cuerpo y renacerá en
3. Los estudiantes deben encerrar en un
círculo “Rama y Sita” y escribir: “su
devoción mutua y su obediencia a su
4. Los estudiantes deben encerrar en un
círculo: los Vedas, los Upanishads, el
Ramayana, el Mahabharata y el
Bhagavad Gita. Los poemas épicos son
diferentes porque se cree que fueron
escritos por personas. Se cree que los
Vedas y los Upanishads fueron revelados
y no escritos.
5. Los jainistas creían que los rituales del
hinduismo no eran necesarios porque el
moksha también podía alcanzarse
mediante acciones.
Tomar notas
Orígenes: Siddhartha Gautama, alrededor de
500 a.C.
Enseñanzas: Cuatro Nobles Verdades, sendero
óctuple, Camino Medio, nirvana; tres sectas:
Theravada, Mahayana, tibetano
Difusión: por toda la India, a través de
misioneros y del comercio hasta Asia Central,
el sureste asiático, China, Corea y Japón
Resumen de la sección
1. El budismo comenzó en el subcontinente
indio en el siglo VI a.C.
2. Los deseos que causan sufrimiento pueden
superarse siguiendo el sendero óctuple.
3. Los estudiantes deben subrayar "budismo
Theravada, Mahayana y tibetano”
4. los misioneros y el comercio
Evaluación de la sección
1. a. escapar del ciclo del renacimiento; el
resultado de las acciones de una persona;
la creación de buen karma genera la
reencarnación; el moksha es un escape a la
b. espíritu eterno; creó y preserva al
mundo; todo es un aspecto del Brahmán
c. para crear buen karma, evitar el
2. a. enseña a las personas a centrar su
cuerpo y su mente, las ayuda a alcanzar el
b. modelos de devoción, conducta,
c. significa “conocimiento”; considerado
el conocimiento más importante
Evaluación de la sección
1. a. muy protegida
b. Vio cómo sufrían otras personas.
c. Allí Buda encontró la iluminación.
2. a. una forma de vida moderada, evitar los
extremos, buscar el nirvana
b. Theravada: enseña el camino individual
a la iluminación; Mahayana: enseña que
las personas pueden ayudarse unas a otras
a alcanzar la iluminación; tibetano: enseña
que uno puede usar técnicas especiales
para alcanzar el nirvana
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Teacher Management System
Answer Key
Ancient India and China
Vocabulary Builder
1. Vyasa divided and preserved the Vedas.
He also wrote the Mahabharata.
2. His work on the Mahabharata is a major
source about information on ancient India.
Through the poem’s characters and the
plot, readers can learn about religious
beliefs and how people thought and acted.
1. monsoons
2. citadel
3. rajas
4. Vedas
5. varnas
6. suppose
7. small social classes
8. large landmass
Students’ skits should reflect information from
the biography, text, and other sources about
the Mahabharata, particularly as it relates to
Vyasa’s views on war.
1. violence
2. one life
3. d
4. a
5. b
6. c
7. Hinduism
8. reincarnation
9. dharma
10. ahimsa
1. Students should include at least several of
the virtues mentioned in the biography,
such as humility, mercy, kindness, and
2. Answers will vary. Students may mention
that farmers need to protect crops from
insects, and that killing anything would
bring them into conflict with ahimsa.
Answers will vary but should be a summary of
the section that includes four of the following
terms: Eightfold Path, Buddha, Buddhism,
Four Noble Truths, Middle Way, nirvana.
1. He achieved enlightenment and became
known as the Buddha.
2. By following the Eightfold Path,
Buddhists can achieve nirvana, or a state
of perfect peace.
3. The Middle Way advises people to avoid
extremes in their search for nirvana.
Answers will vary. Students should mention at
least several areas of life, such as diet,
activities, attitudes, and changing certain
behaviors such as not killing insects.
1. He spread principles of tolerance,
kindness, and respect, and he made
provisions for his subjects’ health,
comfortable travel, as well as providing
specific aid to the needy.
2. Despite his name, he brought great sorrow
upon himself by his actions, and the rest of
his life was shaped by his regret.
Answers will vary but should be definitions of
four of the following terms: Confucianism,
Daoism, Mandate of Heaven, loess, court,
dynastic cycle, oracle bones.
1. T
2. T
3. F; oracle bones
4. F; Mandate of Heaven
Answers will vary. Students may assume a
persona (such as governor or president) and
should write messages that communicate
peace and harmony. Answers should also
include an action plan
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Full Survey Chapter 4
Ancient India and China
Answer Key
base this on the similarity of the cities and
towns. The people shared common tool
designs and a standard set of weights and
measures. These factors suggest a single
authority was in control.
2. A group of Hindus broke away from
Hinduism and founded Jainism. They
thought there was too much emphasis on
rituals in Hinduism. Although most
Hindus practice ahimsa, Jains take it
further and carefully avoid harming any
living creature, from people to insects.
3. After the Buddha’s death, differing
opinions arose concerning the correct
teachings and practices of Buddhism.
Eventually three main traditions formed—
Theravada, Mahayana, and Tibetan. After
his death Buddha’s followers spread his
teachings. Buddhism spread beyond India
into East and Southeast Asia. As
Buddhism encountered other religions it
continued to change and develop. Today it
is a very diverse religion.
4. Any three of the following are acceptable:
The Shang developed the earliest Chinese
writing; they made great advances in
working with bronze, creating highly
decorative bronze vessels and objects;
they were able to build huge, stable
structures such as tombs quickly and
efficiently; Shang astronomers created a
precise calendar based on the cycles of the
moon; and the Shang may have created
one of the world’s first systems of money.
5. The Zhou introduced the idea of the
Mandate of Heaven to gain acceptance for
their rule after conquering the Shang. The
principle stated that the gods would
support a just ruler, but they would not
allow anyone corrupt to hold power.
6. Mahayana Buddhism is practiced in both
China and Japan. From Bodh Gaya the
Mahayana form spread to Central Asia and
Southeast Asia. From those two regions it
spread to China. It spread to Japan from
both Korea and China.
1. d
2. a
3. a
4. c
5. d
1. c
2. h
3. i
4. a
5. j
6. e
7. k
8. b
9. l
10. d
1. Huang He
2. loess
3. Himalayas
4. Gobi
5. Shang
6. oracle
7. Mandate of Heaven
8. Confucius
9. Analects
10. Laozi
Chapter Test, Form A
1. c
2. a
3. d
4. c
5. b
6. b
7. b
8. a
9. h
10. d
11. a
12. f
13. c
14. b
15. l
16. g
17. e
18. i
19. Vedas
20. reincarnation/samsara
21. yoga
22. Eightfold Path
23. trade
24. Mandate of Heaven
25. Daoism
Chapter Test, Form B
Possible responses:
1. Some scholars believe that the Indus
civilization was a single society, not a
collection of independent city–states. They
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Progress Assessment