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1.1.- Confirmará la exactitud de la información solicitada, mediante
el uso de preguntas cortas / tag questions.
Las “tag questions”, son mini-preguntas que se le hacen a las personas con
quién se esta dialogando para saber si están de acuerdo o no con el
comentario que se esta vertiendo. En el idioma Español entre las más comunes
están: ¿a poco no?, ¿di que no?, ¿o no?; por mencionar algunas.
En Español, la “tag question”, puede ser la misma sin importar el tiempo
gramatical en el que se este hablando, ni la persona o situación a la que se
este haciendo referencia, mientras que en Inglés, estos dos elementos son de
vital importancia, toda vez que conforman la parte esencial de la “tag
question”; y estos son: el auxiliar y el pronombre que representa al sujeto de
la oración.
Normalmente utilizamos una tag question positiva con una oración negativa:
You don’t need my help, do you?
She isn’t at home now, is she?
Carlos didn’t work today, did he?
Y normalmente se utiliza una tag question negativa en una oración positiva:
Maria will come back early, won’t she?
The students visited their parents every week, didn’t they?
I was in your classroom last year, wasn’t I?
La tag question debe llevar al auxiliar en contracción si se trata de una minipregunta negativa, además de que no pueden ser utilizados los nombres
propios en estas, por lo que solo se pueden utilizar los pronombres personales.
Después de Let´s… la tag question es shall we?
Let’s go out for a walk, shall we?
Después de una oración imperativa la tag question es will you?
Open the door, will you?
Si la oración es afirmativa de presente de “to be” con primera persona de
singular la tag question es aren´t I?, debido a que no se puede hacer la
contracción amn´t:
I’m late, aren’t I?
EJERCICIO I.- Completar correctamente las siguientes oraciones con su
correspondiente “tag question”.
1. - Luis and Tere are on vacation, _____________?
2. - Let’s have dinner, _____________?
3. - I won’t clean your bedroom, _____________?
4. - We have a camera, _____________?
5. - They weren’t listening, ______________?
6. - I am your neighbor, _____________?
7. - Marco is with us, _____________?
8. - She types very fast, _____________?
9. - The doctors arrived late today, _______________?
10.- Juan has driven a lot of cars, ______________?
11.- She isn’t going to travel by bus, _________________?
12.- Sara had an accident last year, _______________?
13.- Joe plays baseball in the yard, ______________?
14.- He doesn’t drink beer, ______________?
15.- The children were dancing all night, ______________?
EJERCICIO II. Escribir “yes” si piensas que es verdad; escribir “no” si piensas
que es falso. Después escribir la Tag Question apropiada.
1. Cats were the first animals that people kept with them.
Cats weren’t the first animals that people kept with them, were they?
2. Chinese is the language with the most native speakers.
Chinese is the language with the most native speakers, isn’t it?
3. Geneva is the capital of Switzerland.
4. The oceans cover about three-quarters of the earth’s surface.
5. The first written alphabet appeared about 2, 000 years ago in
6. Most of the world chess champions have been Russians.
7. The largest airport in the world is London’s Heathrow.
8. The earth’s climate is getting warmer.
9. Turkey lies on two continents.
10.- The largest ocean in the world is the Atlantic Ocean.
EJERCICIO III.- Agregar Tag Questions a los comentarios y dar la respuesta
EJEMPLO: A: You are a student, aren´t you?
B: Yes, I am.
1. - Erica lives in the dorm, ____________?
____________________________________ .
2. - You don’t live here, ____________?
____________________________________ .
3. - Ted came to class yesterday, ____________?
____________________________________ .
4. - Kathy will be in class tomorrow, ____________?
____________________________________ .
5. - Mr. Lee is at home now, ____________?
____________________________________ .
6. - Our teacher didn’t give us a homework assignment, ____________?
____________________________________ .
7. - It snows a lot in Minneapolis, ____________?
____________________________________ .
8. - You weren’t at home last night, ____________?
____________________________________ .
9. - This is your pen, ____________?
____________________________________ .
10.- That is Mike’s dictionary, ___________?
____________________________________ .
EJERCICIO IV.- Elaborar oraciones coherentes que cumplan con la tag
question que se le da.
1.- ___________________________________________, isn´t it?
2.- ___________________________________________, did you?
3.- ___________________________________________, was he?
4. - ___________________________________________, weren’t they?
5. - ___________________________________________, am I?
6. - ___________________________________________, didn’t she?
7. - ___________________________________________, were you?
8. - ___________________________________________, is he?
9. - ___________________________________________, wasn’t it?
10.- __________________________________________, didn´t we?
EJERCICIO V .- Relacionar correctamente la columna de la derecha con su
correspondiente de la izquierda.
_____ 1.- Gregory left class early today
a. Won´t you?
_____ 2.- He is an excellent student
b. Do they?
_____ 3.- You live in Minnesota
c. Weren’t you?
_____ 4.- You were absent yesterday
d. Isn’t he?
_____ 5.- They don’t know each other
e. Doesn’t he?
_____ 6.- We won’t have to stand in line
f. Didn’t he?
_____ 7.- He never comes to class on time
g. Will we?
_____ 8.- You will call me in the morning
h. Don’t you?
“Hi, Eddy. We’re going to be in math class together again this semester, aren’t
“Sorry. I’m not Eddy”
“Nice to see you again, Bobby.”
“Sorry. I don’t know you.”
“You’re Bobby, aren’t you?”
“No, I am not. I’m Eddy.”
This is the story of an amazing coincidence. Three brothers-triplets-met for the
first time at the age of nineteen.
Bobby Shafran started Sullivan Community College in New York. The previous
semester Eddy Galland was a student there. The two teens looked exactly
alike. Another student learned that both boys were adopted, and he realized
that the boys were probably brothers. That student introduced Bobby to Eddy.
The two boys found out that they were in fact twins, born at the same time. An
adoption agency had sent the boys to two different families. The families didn’t
know that their baby boys had brothers. But even more amazing was this. After
the story was in the newspapers, another boy, named David Kellman, realized
that he was their brother too-also born at the same time. So the twins became
There are many famous stories of twins who met for the first time as adults.
One of the best-known stories is that of Daphne Goodship and Barbara Herbert.
They met for the first time at the age of thirty-nine. When they met, each was
wearing a beige dress and a brown jacket. Blue was their favorite color. They
both liked their coffee cold and black. Well, perhaps, that isn’t very surprising, is
it? But how about these similarities? They both met their future husbands at the
age of sixteen at a dance. They both fell down some stairs at the age of fifteen,
and later they had problems with weak ankles. And to scientists who studied
them, they had similar personalities: they were talkative, and they laughed a lot.
Because of this, they got their nickname-the “Giggle” twins.
Scientists like to study such cases of twins. They want to answer the classis
question, “What’s more important-heredity or environmental?” Studies with
twins like the “Giggle” twins seem to make a case for heredity, don’t they? The
twins grew up in different environments, but still the twins are very similar in
many ways. But are all the similarities just coincidences? What do you think?
EJERCICIO VI.- Relacionar correctamente las siguientes palabras con sus
respectivas definiciones.
1. ______ amazing
a. three brothers born at the same time
2. ______ adult
b. raised by nonbiological parents
3. ______ adopted
c. surprising
4. ______ nickname
d. a short name people call you by
5. ______ heredity
e. a grownup person
6. ______ triplets
f. characteristics you get from your parents
EJERCICIO VII.- Contestar las siguientes preguntas acerca de la lectura.
1. - How did Bobby and Eddy first meet?
2. - What happened when one brother read the newspaper?
3. - How were the “Giggle” twins similar?
4. - Why were they called the “Giggle” twins?
1.2.- Solicitará información acerca de la ubicación de lugares,
horarios, servicios, etc., a través del uso correcto de las preguntas
indirectas / embedded questions.
Cuando le solicitamos información a las personas, algunas veces iniciamos
nuestra pregunta con Do you know …? ó Could you tell me …? Si inicias una
pregunta de esta manera, el orden de las palabras es diferente del orden de las
palabras de una pregunta simple:
Where has Tom gone?
Do you know
where Tom has gone?
Cuando la pregunta (Where has Tom gone?) es parte de una pregunta más
grande (Do you know…), esta pierde el orden normal de las palabras de la
Do you have any idea
When will Ann arrive?
when Ann will arrive?
Could you tell me
What time is it?
what time it is?
Tell us
Why are you laughing?
why you are laughing?
Se debe tener cuidado con las preguntas que utilizan: do / did / does.
Do you know
When does the movie begin?
when the movie begins?
I wonder
Why did Ann leave early?
why Ann left early?
Se utiliza if o whether cuando no hay otra pregunta de información.
Do you know
Did he see you?
if (or whether) he saw you?
EJERCICIO VIII.- Elaborar una nueva oración a partir de las preguntas.
Where is the post office?
Could you tell me where the post office is?
1. - What does this word mean?
2. - What time is it?
3. - Where did you park your car?
4. - Is Ann coming to the meeting?
5. - Where does Jack live?
6. - What time did he leave?
7. - Where can I change some money?
8. - What qualifications do I need?
9. - Why didn’t Mary come to the party?
10.- How much does it cost to park there?
11.- Where is the bank?
12.- What time does the next bus come?
13.- Where did Sara go last night?
14.- Where is the nearest supermarket?
15.- Why is Mona Lisa smiling?
16.- Whom did you speak to earlier?
17.- What is the teacher’s name?
18.- Where are my keys?
19.- Where do you live?
20.- How do you make a noun clause?
EJERCICIO IX.- Transformar las siguientes embedded questions por preguntas
de información.
1. - Will you show me where the warehouse is?
2. - Could you explain what the reporting process is?
3. - Do you know who orders office supplies?
4. - Can you show me how to work the photocopier?
5. - Can you tell me when the orders are arriving?
6. - Could you tell me where the gas station is?
7. - Do you have any idea how much the textbooks cost?
8. - I forgot when the class starts?
9. - Do you know why Maria buys food every day?
10.- Do you know where the reports are?
1.3.- Describirá las características esenciales de personas, objetos
y lugares, haciendo uso de los pronombres relativos.
Los pronombres relativos forman parte de las cláusulas adjetivas y en una
oración hacen referencia de: personas, animales, cosas, ideas, acciones, etc.
Es decir toman la función de cualquier sujeto u objeto de la oración.
Una cláusula es una estructura que tiene un sujeto y un verbo. Hay dos tipos
de cláusulas: independiente y dependiente. Una cláusula independiente es
una cláusula principal. Esta puede quedar sola en una oración. Una cláusula
dependiente debe ser conectada a una cláusula independiente. Una cláusula
dependiente no puede quedar sola como una oración. Una cláusula adjetiva es
una cláusula dependiente.
I met a man = cláusula independiente
who is kind to everybody = clásula dependiente
A continuación se ejemplificarán los usos de los pronombres relativos.
The man is friendly.
He lives next to me. (1)
who lives next to me.
The man who lives next to me is friendly. (2)
En la oración (1): He es un pronombre personal. He se refiere a “the man”.
Para hacer una cláusula adjetiva, podemos cambiar he por who. Who es un
pronombre personal. Who se refiere a “the man”.
I met him. (1)
The man was friendly.
I met
The man whom I met was friendly. (2)
En la oración (1): Him es un pronombre del objeto. Him se refiere a “the man”.
Para hacer una cláusula adjetiva, podemos cambiar him por whom. Whom es
un pronombre del objeto. Whom se refiere a “the man”. Whom viene al inicio
de una cláusula adjetiva.
™ En el Inglés informal, who es a menudo utilizado como un pronombre
del objeto en lugar de whom:
FORMAL: The man whom I met was friendly.
INFORMAL: The man who I met was friendly.
EJERCICIO X.- Combinar las dos oraciones en una, para hacer una cláusula
adjetiva utilizando who ó whom.
EJEMPLO: a. Do you know the people?
b. They live in the White House.
Do you know the people who live in the white house.
a. The woman gave me some information
b. I called her.
The woman whom I called game me some information.
1. a. The police officer was friendly.
b. He gave me directions.
2. a. The waitress was friendly.
b. She served us dinner.
3. a. I don’t know the man.
b. He is talking to Rita.
4. a. The people were very nice.
b. I met them at the party.
5. a. The woman thanked me.
b. I helped her.
6. a. Do you like the mechanic?
b. He fixed your car.
7. a. Mr. Polanski is a mechanic.
b. You can trust this mechanic.
8. a. The people have three cars.
b. They live next to me.
9. - a. I talked to the woman.
b. She was sitting next to me.
10. a. I talked to the people.
b. They were sitting next to me.
11. a. The woman was walking her dog.
b. I saw her.
12. a. The people were playing football.
b. I saw them at the park.
EJERCICIO XI.- Relacionar correctamente las siguientes columnas.
EJEMPLO: A Bostonian is someone who lives in Boston.
1. A Bostonian is someone…
a. Who has trouble sleeping.
2. A pilot is a person…
b. who seeks to overthrow the government
3. A procrastinator is someone…
c. who flies an airplane.
4. A botanist is a scientist…
d. who studies weather phenomena.
5. An insomniac is somebody…
e. who lives in Boston.
6. A revolutionary is someone…
f. who hates people.
7. A misanthrope is a person…
g. who always puts off doing things.
8. A meteorologist is a person…
h. who has special knowledge in one area.
9. A jack-of-all-trades is someone… i. who has many skills.
10. An expert can be defined as a
j. who studies plants.
1. - A Bostonian is someone who lives in Boston.
2. - ____________________________________________________________.
3. - ____________________________________________________________.
4. - ____________________________________________________________.
5. - ____________________________________________________________.
6. - ____________________________________________________________.
7. - ____________________________________________________________.
8. - ____________________________________________________________.
9. - ____________________________________________________________.
10.- ___________________________________________________________.
The man is friendly.
He lives next to me. (1)
The man who lives next to me is friendly. (2)
The man that lives next to me is friendly. (3)
En adición a who, podemos usar that como el sujeto de una cláusula adjetiva.
Las oraciones (2) y (3) tienen el mismo significado.
Un pronombre personal no puede ser omitido.
INCORRECTO: The man lives next to me is friendly.
CORRECTO: The man who/that lives next to me is friendly.
The man was friendly.
I met him. (1)
The man
I met
was friendly. (2)
The man
I met
was friendly. (3)
I met
was friendly. (4)
The man
Adicionalmente a whom, podemos utilizar that como el objeto en una cláusula
adjetiva. Las oraciones (2) y (3) tienen el mismo significado.
Un pronombre del objeto puede ser omitido por una cláusula adjetiva. (2), (3) y
(4) tienen el mismo significado. En la (4) el espacio en blanco significa que
nada va ahí.
EJERCICIO XII.- Cambiar that por who o whom. Omitir that si es posible.
EJEMPLO: The woman that I met last night was interesting.
The woman who(m) I met last night was interesting.
The woman
I met last night was interesting.
1. - The man that answered the phone was police.
2. - The people that Ann is visiting live on Elm Street.
3. - Do you like the boy that is talking to Jennifer?
4. - The students that came to class late missed the quiz.
5. - I don’t know any of the people that Bill invited to his party.
6. - The woman that I saw in the park was feeding the pigeons.
7. - The person that I admire most is my grandmother.
8. - I like the barber that usually cuts my hair.
The river is polluted.
flows through town. (1)
The river
The river
which flows through town
flows through town
is polluted. (2)
is polluted. (3)
Who y whom se refieren a personas. Which se refiere a cosas. That puede
referirse tanto a personas como a cosas. En la oración (1), para hacer una
cláusula adjetiva, podemos cambiar it por which ó that. It, which y that se
refieren a una cosa (the river). Las oraciones (2) y (3) tienen el mismo
Cuando which y that son utilizados como el sujeto de una cláusula adjetiva,
éstos no pueden ser omitidos.
The books were expensive. I bought
them. (4)
The books
The books
The books
I bought
I bought
I bought
were expensive. (5)
were expensive. (6)
were expensive. (7)
Which ó that, pueden ser utilizados como un objeto en una cláusula adjetiva
como en (5) y (6).
Un pronombre del objeto puede ser omitido de una cláusula adjetiva, como en
(7). (5), (6) y (7) tienen el mismo significado.
EJERCICIO XIII.- Combinar las dos oraciones dentro de una oración. Hacer de
“b” una cláusula adjetiva. Dar todas las formas posibles.
EJEMPLO: a. The pill made me sleepy.
The pill
The pill
The pill
b. I took it.
which I took made me sleepy.
that I took made me sleepy.
I took made me sleepy.
1. a. The soup was too salty.
b. I had it for lunch
2. a. I have a class.
b. It begins at 8:00 A.M.
3. a. All of the people can come.
b. I asked them to my party.
4. a. Where can I catch the bus?
b. It goes downtown.
5. a. A lion is an animal.
b. This animal lives in Africa.
The man called the police.
car was stolen. (1)
whose car
The man
whose car was stolen
called the police. (2)
Whose muestra posesión. En la oración (1), podemos cambiar his car por
whose car para hacer una cláusula adjetiva. En la oración (2), “whose car was
stolen” es igual a una cláusula adjetiva.
I know a girl.
Her brother
is a movie star. (3)
whose brother
I know a girl
whose brother is a movie star. (4)
En la oración 3, podemos cambiar her brother por whose brother para hacer
una cláusula adjetiva.
The people were friendly.
We bought
their house. (5)
whose house.
The people
whose house
we bought
were friendly. (6)
En la oración (5), podemos cambiar, their house por whose house, para hacer
una cláusula adjetiva.
EJERCICIO XIV.- Combinar las dos oraciones en una oración. Hacer de “b”
una cláusula adjetiva. Utilizar whose.
EJEMPLO: a. There is the man.
b. His car was stolen.
There is the man whose car was stolen.
1. a. There is the woman.
b. Her cat died.
2. a. Over there is the man.
b. I’m dating his daughter.
3. a. Over there is the woman.
b. You met her husband yesterday.
4. There is the professor.
b. I’m taking her course.
5. a. That is the man.
b. His son is an astronaut.
6. a. That is the girl.
b. I borrowed her camera.
7. a. There is the boy.
b. His mother is a famous musician.
8. - They are the people.
b. We visited their house last month.
2.1.- Describirá los grandes inventos y creaciones del hombre tanto
en el presente como en el pasado, hacienda uso de la voz pasiva.
Lo primero que se debe decir acerca de la voz pasiva es que es más
frecuentemente utilizada y en una variedad de situaciones más amplias en
inglés que en español. No es incoherente decir, por lo tanto, que es más
importante en inglés que en español.
La voz pasiva es normalmente utilizada cuando el hablante (o escritor) no esta
enterado de quien ejecuto la acción. Como una consecuencia de esto, la
mayoría de las oraciones de voz pasiva no mencionan quien o que es
responsable de la acción.
Todos los verbos en voz pasiva se forman con el verbo TO BE + el pasado
participio del verbo principal.
Para cambiar una oración a voz pasiva se siguen los pasos siguientes:
1.- El objeto se pone al principio y se convierte en sujeto.
Susan eats vegetables.
(objeto del verbo en voz activa)
(sujeto de la oración en voz pasiva)
2.- Se incluye el verbo TO BE en el tiempo en que esté el verbo principal (si
el verbo principal está en presente, el verbo TO BE estará en presente; si el
verbo principal está en pasado, TO BE estará en pasado y así sucesivamente).
Susan eats vegetables.
(verbo principal en presente)
Vegetables are ...
(verbo to be en presente)
3.- Después de to be, se incluye el verbo principal en pasado participio.
Susan eats vegetables.
(verbo principal)
Vegetables are eaten...
(verbo principal en pasado participio)
4.- El sujeto se pone al final y se convierte en el objeto del verbo en voz pasiva,
usualmente precedido por la preposición by.
Susan eats vegetables.
(sujeto de la oración en voz activa)
Vegetables are eaten by Susan.
(objeto del verbo en voz pasiva)
Mike and Sue bought a new house.
PASO 1.Mike and Sue bought a new house.
A new house...
Sujeto de la oración en voz pasiva.
PASO 2.Mike and Sue bought a new house.
Verbo principal en pasado.
A new house was...
Verbo to be
PASO 3.Mike and Sue bought a new house.
Verbo principal.
A new house was bought...
Verbo principal en pasado participio.
PASO 4.Mike and Sue bought a new house.
Sujeto de la oración en voz activa.
A new house was bought by Mike and Sue.
Objeto del verbo en voz pasiva.
EJERCICIO I.- Convertir las siguientes oraciones de voz activa a voz pasiva.
A druggist named John “Doc” Pemberton invented Coca-Cola in 1886.
Coca-Cola was invented by a druggist named John “Doc” Pemberton in 1886.
1.-Ms. Hopkins invited me to dinner.
2.-Thomas Edison invented the phonograph.
3. - Water surrounds an island.
4. - A maid cleaned our hotel room.
5. - A plumber fixes the leaky faucet.
6. - A doctor examined the sick child.
7. - The police arrested James Swan.
8. - A large number of people speak Spanish.
9. - The secretary answers the letter.
10.- The teacher’s explanation confused Carlos.
Petroleum is the industrialized world’s principal source of energy but
reserves are limited and so it is very expensive. This has led to alternative
energy sources, such as: nuclear power, the sun, the wind and the tides, being
developed. The success of these new sources has meant that they will be used
more and more in the future. However, they have not solved our most
immediate energy problem: how to power motor vehicles cheaply, safely and
efficiently. Gasoline has a much greater energy density than that of its rivals,
but, because of cost, that is not such a great advantage is its convenience.
The basic problem here is not one of energy density but of storage. There
has been no fuel available which can be stored as efficiently and as safely as
gasoline. Electricity could be an alternative to gasoline, it can be obtained
relatively cheaply from the new energy sources, but it has to be stored in very
heavy batteries. Hydrogen would be an even better fuel. It is the base for all the
other elements in the universe. In the short term, it could be obtained from coal,
and in the long term, by water using electrolysis. More energy can be obtained
from a kilogram of hydrogen than from a similar quantity of any other chemical
fuel. Also, hydrogen is clean. When it is burnt, the chief by-product is water.
Nevertheless, the storage problem is immense. The conventional methods of
storing hydrogen are as a gas large, heavy pressurized containers or in its
costly and dangerous liquid form. Neither of these methods is suitable for motor
Now, however, scientists think they have solved this problem by using metal
hydrides. A metal hydride is a chemical compound of hydrogen and metal, and
many of them are formed simply by bringing these two elements together (M +
H = MH2). As can be seen from the formula, the reaction can operate in both
directions, depending on the gas pressure and temperature. Hydrogen atoms
enter the crystalline structure of the metal; eventually it becomes saturated with
the gas and a metal hydride is formed. After the hydride has been formed, a
small increase in gas pressure allows even larger quantities of gas to be
absorbed. The stored hydrogen is easily retrieved by heating the metal hydride
to the required temperature. This process can be repeated, converting the metal
hydride into a ´fuel tank´.
EJERCICIO II.- Completar las oraciones con la forma correcta del verbo “to be”
y el pasado participio de los verbos en paréntesis.
But reserves __________________ and so it is very expensive. (limit)
But reserves are limited and so it is very expensive.
1. - It can ___________________ relatively cheaply from the new energy
sources. (obtain)
2. - But it has ____________________ in very heavy batteries. (store)
3. - When it ___________________, the chief by-product is water. (burn)
4. - Many of them ___________________ simply by bringing these two
elements together. (form)
5. - As can ____________________ from the formula, the reaction can operate
in both directions. (see)
6. - After the hydride ________________________, a small increase in gas
pressure allows even larger quantities of gas _________________________.
(form) (absorb)
EJERCICIO III.- Completar las siguientes oraciones con la forma apropiada de
los verbos.
EJEMPLO: Most books are _____________ by companies in the private sector.
Most books are published by companies in the private sector.
1. - Accidents are ______________ by carelessness. (cause)
2. - Bridges are usually _______________ of reinforced concrete. (make)
3. - Very good coffee is _________________ in Colombia. (grow)
4.-Penicillin was _________________by Sir Arthur Fleming. (discover)
5. - Football is _________________ in all Latin America. (play)
6. - The electric light bulb was ________________ by Edison. (invent)
7. - Arabic is _____________________ from right to left. (write)
8. - English is _________________ all over the world. (speak)
9.-That message was _______________ by telegraph. (transmit)
10.- In this office all the letters are ________________ by air mail. (send)
DDT was recognized in 1947 for its effectiveness in killing mosquitoes in
Third World countries. It helped control malaria. Also effective for the control of
numerous agricultural pests, DDT was used in the U.S. until 1973. At that time it
was cited as an environmental danger due to its effect on the food chain.
Some time ago, large amounts of DDT were sent to Borneo by the World
Health Organization to fight mosquitoes that spread malaria among the people.
The mosquitoes were quickly annihilated. But billions of roaches lived in the
villages and they were not killed; they simply stored the DDT in their bodies.
One kind of animal that fed on the roaches was a small lizard. When these
lizards ate the roaches, they also ate a lot of DDT. Instead of killing them, DDT
only slowed them down. This made it easier for cats to catch the lizards, one of
their favorite food.
About the same time, people also found that hoards of caterpillars had
moved in to feed on the roofing materials of their homes. They realized that the
lizards that were keeping the caterpillar population under control had been
eaten by the cats. After that, all the cats that ate lizards died from DDT
Then rats moved in because there were no cats to control their population.
With the rats came a new danger: plague. Officials sent out emergency calls for
cats. Therefore cats were sent in by airplane and were dropped by parachute.
One simple change in the ecosystem had caused a whole chain reaction.
DDT was very effective in certain pests; however, its long term effects on the
environment were not determined until it was too late.
The use of DDT was prohibited; nevertheless, even now, many problems are
caused by its presence in our environment.
When we try to use technology to change something at one level of the
chain, it may have an unknown impact at another level.
EJERCICIO IV.- Contestar correctamente las siguientes preguntas acerca del
When was DDT recognized for its effectiveness in killing mosquitoes?
DDT was recognized in 1947.
1. - When was used DDT in USA?
2. - Where were sent large amount of DDT?
3. - What were quickly annihilated?
4. - What were not killed by DDT?
5. - What had caused a whole chain reaction?
6. - What were not determined about DDT?
7. - What was prohibited?
EJERCICIO V.- Relacionar correctamente las siguientes columnas.
EJEMPLO: The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
1. ______ Ice Cream was invented
a. by John Pembleton in 1886 in Atlanta.
2. ______ The Mona Lisa was
b. by King Camp Gillette in 1903.
3. ______ Hamlet was written
c. by Gutemberg in 1455 in Germany.
4. ______ Coca-Cola was invented d. by the Chinese 4,000 years ago.
5. ______ The law of gravity was
e. by Leonardo da Vinci.
6. ______ The first Volkswagen was f. by the Hungarian Biro.
7. ______ The telephone was
g. by William Shakespeare.
8. ______ The first 200 Bibles
were printed.
h. by Ferdinand Porsche in the early
9. ______ The ballpoint pen was
made famous.
i. by Isaac Newton.
10. _____ The first razor blade
was produced.
j. by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.
Which quick service restaurant chain has more than 28, 000 restaurants in
120 countries, has a clown as its symbol and virtually invented the idea of fast
food? You probably guessed it: McDonald’s. The classic McDonald’s meal is a
hamburger with French fries and a drink. McDonald’s hamburgers are made
from 100% pure beef, which is cooked on a grill and served in a bun with onion,
tomato ketchup, mustard and dill pickle.
Mac and Dick McDonald created the concept of quick service at their
restaurant in San Bernardino, California. They also invented the idea of
specialization – one person cooked the hamburgers, another made milkshakes
and another put mayonnaise on the buns. But the biggest innovation was to
have the food prepared and waiting so customers could place an order and
immediately collect it. The food was good and cheap and business exploded.
People felt confident in taking their families because they could expect
cleanliness and food of a certain quality.
Their business grew and by the mid 1950s, the original restaurant was
making $350, 000 a year. Then in 1954 Ray Kroc, an electric mixer salesman,
visited the restaurant. In 1955, he opened a second McDonald’s restaurant in
Des Plaines, Illinois. He persuaded the brothers to open several other
restaurants in other cities. Four years later he opened the 100th restaurant in
Chicago. In 1961, Kroc bought all rights to the McDonald’s concept from the
McDonald brothers for $2.7 million.
EJERCICIO VI.- Contestar correctamente las siguientes preguntas de acuerdo
con el texto.
EJEMPLO: Where they cook the beef:
They cook the beef on a grill.
1. - Number of restaurants:
2. - Inventors of McDonald’s quick service system:
3. - Where they opened their first restaurant:
4. - Classic McDonald’s meal:
5. - Ingredients of McDonald’s hamburger:
6. - Ray Kroc’s original job:
7. - Amount paid by Ray Kroc for the business:
8. - Name of the McDonald’s brothers:
9. - How much was making the business by mid 1950s:
10.- When was opened the 100th restaurant:
Our World is to a large extent the result of things people invented. Imagine a
world without textiles, concrete or paper! The people in ancient Mesopotamia
invented the wheel in 3880 B.C. They also invented the sailboat and the world’s
first written laws.
The ancient Egyptians calculated a number system based on ten and
invented a 365-day calendar and textiles to make clothes. They were also the
first people to use cosmetics and perfumes as early as 4 000 B.C. Both men
and women painted their faces and cleaned their skin with oils and creams.
Ancient Greece invented the Olympic Games in 776 B.C., as well as trial by
jury and democracy. The ancient Romans were more practical in their
inventions. They developed concrete, paved roads and road signs.
The Chinese were prolific inventors and were responsible for inventing paper
in about 100 A.D., and they invented gunpowder and the compass.
Finally, the flush toilet is not a modern invention at all. It is a product of the
Minoan civilization in Crete and dates from about 2 000 B.C.!
EJERCICIO VII.- Elaborar oraciones en voz pasiva basándose en el texto
EJEMPLO: The Wheel was invented by the people in ancient Mesopotamia.
1. - ___________________________________________________________.
2. - ___________________________________________________________.
3. - ___________________________________________________________.
4. - ___________________________________________________________.
5. - ___________________________________________________________.
2.2.- Explicará el contraste entre los hábitos y costumbres de las
personas en el pasado y el presente, a través del uso de la forma
verbal used to.
Used to, se refiere a algo que se hacía de manera regular en el pasado, pero
que ya no se hace. Por ejemplo:
When I was a kid, we used to stay at my uncle’s beach house.
Did you use to have a hobby?
Yes, I used to collect shells.
What games did you use to play?
I used to play chess.
Si la oración es interrogativa ó negativa, entonces se utiliza la forma use to
debido a que el auxiliar Did y didn´t respectivamente, hacen la función de
referirse al pasado. Por ejemplo:
When I was a child I didn’t use to play soccer, but now I play every day.
EJERCICIO VIII.- Elaborar preguntas coherentes de use to que cumplan
con las respuestas.
EJEMPLO: A: What did you use to do in the summer?
B: We used to go to the beach.
1. A: ________________________________________________________.
B: No, we didn’t collect shells. We used to build sand castles.
2. A: ________________________________________________________.
B: Yes, we did. We used to go swimming for hours. Then we played all kind
of sports.
3. A: Really? What _____________________________________________.
B: Well, we used to play beach volleyball with some other kids.
4. A: ________________________________________________________.
B: No, we didn’t. We used to win!
EJERCICIO IX.- Contestar las siguientes preguntas con información personal.
EJEMPLO: What T.V. programs did you use to watch ten years ago? What T.V.
programs do you watch now?
I used to watch sports and musical programs.
Now I watch documentals and news.
1. What hobbies did you use to have five years ago? What hobbies do you have
I used to _______________________________________________________.
Now, _________________________________________________________.
2. What kind of music did you use to like them? Who were your favorite
singers? What kind of music do you like now?
3. What kind of clothes did you use to like to wear? What kind of clothes do you
like to wear now?
4. What kind of food did you use to eat? What kind of food do you like to eat
5. What kind of sports did you use to play? What kind of sports do you like to
play now?
How did America’s youth live in 1969? The most popular car used to be the
V.W. bug, a car which is not manufactured in the U.S. today. A gallon of gas
used to cost 30 cents. And one-room apartment in New York, which today cost
approximately $600/month, used to cost $75!
So we know that life used to be cheaper…But what was the typical American
mentality when Woodstock took place? Most people used to love and respect
their political leaders. Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King, for example,
used to inspire profound respect. Do today’s young people admire current
political figures?
Was 1969 a great time to be young? Well, students used to consume large
quantities of illegal drugs. In fact, many people used to define happiness as
peace and free love. Today, most of these people are between 40 and 50 years
old-if they survived.
World peace used to be every young person’s dream. Is this still true today?
EJERCICIO X.- Escribir oraciones completas utilizando “used to” acerca de los
siguientes puntos del texto.
EJEMPLO: COST OF GAS: The cost of gas used to be 30 cents per gallon.
EJERCICIO XI.- Elaborar oraciones con un significado similar utilizando used
to. Algunas de las oraciones son negativas, y algunas son interrogativas.
EJEMPLO: When I was a child, I was shy. Now I’m not shy.
I used to be shy, but now I’m not.
1. - Now you live in this city. Where did you live before you came here?
Where ____________________________________________________?
2. - When I lived in my home town, I went to the beach every weekend. Now I
don’t go to the beach every weekend.
I _________________________________ to the beach every weekend, but
now I don’t.
3. - Rita worked in a law office for many years. Now she doesn’t have a job.
Rita _________________________ in a law office, but now she doesn’t.
4. - Adam has a new job. He has to wear a suit every day. When he was a
student, he always wore jeans.
Adam ______________________________ a suit every day, but now he does.
5. - Sara has two cats that she enjoys as pets. In the past, she hated cats.
These are her first pets.
Sara ___________________________ cats. She _______________________
pets, but today she enjoys her two cats.
6. - When I was in high school, I wore a uniform to school.
I ____________________________ a uniform to school, but now I don’t.
7. - Now you have a job every summer. Have you always worked during
What ____________________________________________ in summer?
3.1.- Reportará información recibida de terceras personas, haciendo
uso de la forma reported speech.
Cuando le queremos decir a alguien, lo que opino otra persona, lo podemos
hacer de dos maneras, con lo que en Inglés se denomina: Direct speech ó
Reported speech. Por ejemplo:
TOM: “I’m feeling sick”.
Tu puedes repetir las palabras de Tom:
Tom said: “I’m feeling sick”. (Direct speech)
Tom said (that) he was feeling sick.
(Reported speech)
Compare las dos oraciones:
Direct speech
Reported speech
Tom said, “I
Tom said (that)
feeling sick”
feeling sick
Cuando utilizamos reported speech usualmente estamos hablando acerca del
pasado. Así que los verbos usualmente cambian a pasado. Por ejemplo:
Am/is = was
Will = would
have/has = had
can = could
do/want/know = did/wanted/knew
are = were
El pasado simple (I did) puede usualmente permanecer de la misma manera
en reported speech ó puede ser cambiada al pasado perfecto (I had done).
Did = did ó had done
Direct speech
Tom said “I woke up feeling sick and so I stayed in bed”
Reported speech
Tom said (that) he woke (or had woken) up feeling sick
and so he stayed (or had stayed) in bed.
Direct speech
Reported speech
Simple present
“I have a brother and a sister”.
“I don’t like mangoes”.
Simple past
He said he had a brother and a sister
She said she didn’t like mangoes
Present progressive
“I’m talking to Mary”.
Past progressive
She said she was talking to Mary.
Simple past
“I learned English in Canada”.
Past perfect
He said he had learned English in
Present perfect
“I haven’t seen the movie yet”.
Past perfect
She said she hadn’t seen the movie yet.
“I will see you later”.
“I can’t come to the meeting.”
“I have to/must to go to the
“They may raise the price”
“You should lose weight”
Reported questions
How old are you?
Where were you last night?
She said she would see me later.
She said she couldn’t come to the
She said she had to/must to go to the
I think they might raise the price.
She felt I should lose weight.
He asked how old I was.
She wanted to know where I had been
the night before.
Nota: Si no hay pregunta de información (how, where, when, etc.), se utiliza if.
Are you a student?
Did you enjoy the party?
He asked if I was a student.
She asked if I had enjoy the party.
Cambio de palabras
Algunas veces en reported speech, las palabras pueden ser diferentes de las
que se utilizan en la oración original.
“Why aren’t you at school?”
“Of course I did my homework.”
“You should leave now.”
“I think is a good idea.”
Mother asked/wanted to know why
she wasn’t at school.
Tom assured the teacher that he had
done his homework.
Mary suggested we should leave
right away.
My friend agreed it was a good idea.
Nota: Las siguientes expresiones cambian en reported speech.
Now = then
today = (on) that day
tomorrow = the day alter/the next day
yesterday = the day before
No siempre es necesario cambiar el verbo cuando se utiliza reported speech. Si
estas reportando algo y sientes que aún es verdad, no necesitas cambiar el
tiempo del verbo.
Direct speech
Reported speech
Tom said, “New York is bigger than London.”
Tom said (that) New York is (or was) bigger
than London.
Direct speech
Reported speech
Ann said, “I want to go to Turkey next year”.
Ann said (that) she wants (or wanted) to go
to Turkey next year.
Es importante señalar que si hay una diferencia entre lo que fue dicho y la
verdad, se debe cambiar el tiempo gramatical. Analicemos esta situación:
You met Ann. She said, “Jim is sick.” (direct speech)
Later that day you see Jim playing tennis and looking fine. You say: “I’m
surprised to see you playing tennis, Jim. Ann said that you were sick.” (not that
you are sick, because he isn’t sick).
EJERCICIO I.- Suponer que te encontraste con una amiga tuya y te contó las
siguientes situaciones. Convertir estas situaciones a la forma de reported
EJEMPLO: I’m thinking of going to live in France.
She said that she was thinking of going to live in France.
1. - My father is in the hospital.
2. - Sue and Jim are getting married next month.
3. - I haven’t seen Bill for a while.
4. - I’ve been playing tennis a lot lately.
5. - Barbara has had a baby.
6. - I don’t know what Fred is doing.
7. - I hardly ever go out these days.
8. - I work 14 hours a day.
9. - I will tell Jim I saw you.
10.- You can come and stay with me if you are ever in Toronto.
Both the energy value of food and the energy spent in daily activity are
measured in units of heat called kilocalories. These measurements are also
referred to as food calories, or simply calories. Diets for gaining or losing weight
are based on the amount of calories taken into the body in food and the amount
of calories used up in activity. If people take in more calories than they use up,
they will gain weight. They will lose weight if they take in fewer calories than
they use up. A diet aimed toward losing or gaining weight should include all the
food elements. People should seek the advice of a doctor before beginning
such a diet. Special diets may be prescribed for people suffering from certain
diseases. For example, the healthy body needs sugar; but a person with
diabetes must limit the use of sugar: Doctors may prescribe low-salt diets for
patients with certain heart or kidney diseases.
Some people suffer allergic or skin reactions from certain food products,
such as milk, tomatoes, strawberries, wheat, potatoes, eggs, fish, nuts,
chocolate, or pork. These people should consult a doctor. Certain groups of
people, such as young children or older people, have special dietary needs.
Because children grow rapidly, they need food not only to replace worn-out
tissues and provide energy, but also to build new tissue. A well-balanced diet
for a child or an adult should include milk and milk products, eggs, lean meat,
poultry, fish, or nuts, seeds, and legumes, such as peas and soybeans, fruit and
vegetables, and cereals or bread products. Older people need as many
nutrients as children and young adults. But if their activity is reduced, they need
fewer calories. Expectant or nursing mothers and babies also need special
EJERCICIO II.- Completar las siguientes oraciones basadas en los comentarios
del texto.
EJEMPLO: Doctors say that diets for gaining or losing weight are based
on the amount of calories taken into the body in food and the
amount of calories used up in activity.
1. - Doctors say that if we take in more calories that _____________________
2. - Doctors claim that a diet should include ___________________________
3. - Doctors suggest that people should seek __________________________
4. - Doctors say that children need ___________________________________
5. - Doctors explain that older people need ____________________________
EJERCICIO III.- Cambiar las siguientes citas hechas por personajes famosos,
por reported speech.
EJEMPLO: Woody Allen, “I’m not afraid to die. I just don’t want to be there
when it happens”
Woody Allen said that, he was not afraid to die. He just didn’t want to be there
when it happened.
1. - Mark Twain, “Never let formal education get in the way of your learning.”
Mark Twain said that ______________________________________________
2. - George Bernard Shaw, “It is dangerous to be sincere unless you are also
George Bernard Shaw said that ______________________________________
3. - Johann Sebastian Bach, “It’s easy to play any musical instrument: all you
have to do is touch the right key at the right time and the instrument will play
Johann Sebastian Bach said that ____________________________________
4. - Platon, “Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools talk
because they have to say something.”
Platon said that __________________________________________________
5. - Albert Einstein, “When you sit with a nice girl for two hours, you think it’s
only a minute. But when you sit on a hot stove for a minute, you think it’s two
hours. That’s relativity.” ____________________________________________
6. - Bill Gates in 1981, “640K ought to be enough for anybody”
Bill gates said that ________________________________________________
7. - Winston Churchill, “I’m ready to meet my maker, but whether my maker is
prepared for the great ordeal of meeting me is another matter”
Winston Churchill said that _________________________________________
8. - Charles De Gaulle, “How could anyone govern a nation that has two
hundred forty-six different kinds of cheese?”
Charles De Gaulle said that _________________________________________
3.2.- Reportará instrucciones recibidas a terceras personas,
hacienda uso de la forma reported commands.
El orden de las palabras en reported questions es diferente al orden en
reported speech. No se invierte el sujeto y el verbo auxiliar y no existe
do/does/did. Es similar a las indirect questions.
“Why have you come here?”
“What time is it?”
“Where do you live?”
I asked her why she had come here.
He wants to know what time it is.
She asked me where I lived.
Nota: No se utiliza signo de interrogación en una reported question, y tampoco
se utiliza say.
He said, “How old are you?”
He asked me how old I am.
Si no hay pregunta de información, se utiliza if ó whether.
She wants to know if/whether she should wear a dress.
Para reported commands, requests, offers, y advice se utiliza: verb + person +
They told us to go away.
They asked me to look after their cat.
He urgued the teachers to go back to work,
She persuaded me to have my hair cut.
I advised the president to leave immediately.
Nota: say no es posible. A cambio se utiliza: ask, told, etc.
Para comandos negativos, se utiliza not antes de to.
He told me not to tell anyone.
The police warned people not to go out.
Hay que ser cuidadoso, debido a que, tell y say pueden ser utilizados en
diferentes maneras, pero la forma cambia.
Utilizamos tell para reported statements y reported commands.
Reported statements
He told me that he was going.
They told us that they were going abroad.
She told them what had been happening.
Reported commands
He told me to keep still.
The police told people to move on.
My parents told me to clean up my room.
Utilizamos ask para reported commands y reported questions.
Reported commands
I was asked to attend the interview.
He asked me to open my suitcase.
She asked me not to leave.
Reported questions
He asked me what I did for a living.
I asked her how much the rent was.
She asked me why I had come.
EJERCICIO IV.- Convertir las siguientes preguntas a su forma de reported
EJEMPLO: Tania: “Is that boy your neighbor?
Tania asked if that boy was your neighbor
Tania asked whether that boy was your neighbor.
1. - Jeremy: “Do you like to play soccer?”
2. - Joshua: “Did you eat breakfast?”
3.- Diana: “Have you gone to Puerto Vallarta?”
4. - The students: “Are you going to assign more homework?”
5. - Salesman: “May I help you?”
6. - Mr. Hendricks: “Should I call you tomorrow?”
7. - Mel: “Are your friends coming to the concert?”
8. - Betty: “Where do you live?”
9. - Charles: “When is your birthday?”
10.- John: “Where did you study English?”
11.- Maria: “Why are you going to give back this DVD player?
12.- Elizabeth: “What will he do next weekend?”
EJERCICIO V.- Seleccionar la respuesta correcta en cada caso.
EJEMPLO: “Would you like to spend the weekend with us?”
They invited her to spend the weekend with them.
a) advised
b) ordered
c) invited
d) begged
1. - “Could you open the window please?”
She ___________ him to open the window.
a) reminded
b) ordered
c) asked
2. - “Go to bed immediately!”
Mary’s mother _____________ her to go to bed immediately.
a) advised
b) begged
c) asked
d) ordered
3. - “Don’t forget to post the letter!”
He _____________ me to post the letter.
a) reminded
b) ordered
c) begged
d) asked
4. - “Park the car behind the van!”
The instructor _____________ him to park the car behind the van.
a) offered
c) asked
d) ordered
5. - “Please, please turn down the radio!”
Mark’s sister _____________ him to turn the radio down.
a) reminded
b) ordered
c) asked
d) begged
6. - “Don’t play with the matches. They are very dangerous”
The teacher ___________ the children not to play with the matches.
a) ordered
b) asked
c) warned
d) begged
7. - “I’ll give you a lift to the airport”
Michelle ___________ to give her husband a lift to the airport.
a) refused
b) offered
c) asked
d) begged
Un verbo es considerado un phrasal verb si esta compuesto de dos o más
palabras. Una de estas palabras es siempre un verbo, la otra puede ser:
1.- Un adverbio como en THROW AWAY.
2.- Una preposición como en LOOK INTO, ó
3.- Ambos, un adverbio y una preposición como en PUT UP WITH.
El significado de un phrasal verb es comúnmente muy diferente del significado
del verbo por si solo. Por ejemplo:
LOOK INTO = investigar, y LOOK AFTER = cuidar de. Los dos tienen
significados diferentes de LOOK. De hecho, muchos phrasal verbs son
idiomatic. Un idiom es un grupo compuesto de palabras con un segundo
significado, el cual es diferente del significado de las palabras de manera
1.- Un phrasal verb es un verbo más una preposición ó adverbio el cual crea un
significado diferente del verbo original.
I ran into my teacher at the library yesterday.
My brother ran away when he was 13.
run + into = meet
run + away = leave home
2.- Algunos phrasal verbs son intransitivos. Un verbo intransitivo no puede ser
seguido por un objeto. Recuerde que un objeto es la parte de la oración que
recibe de manera directa ó indirecta la acción del verbo.
The plane suddenly took off.
“take off” no puede tomar a un objeto.
3.- Algunos phrasal verbs son transitivos. Un verbo transitivo puede ser seguido
por un objeto. El objeto recibe la acción del verbo directa o indirectamente.
I put off the meeting.
“meeting” es el objeto de “put off”.
4.- Algunos verbos transitivos son separables. El objeto es colocado entre el
verbo y la preposición.
I made a story up to convince my mother to let me go.
She picked the clothes up from the dry cleaners.
5.- Algunos phrasal verbs transitivos son inseparables. El objeto es colocado
después de la preposición.
I ran into an old friend yesterday.
They are looking into the problem.
6.- Algunos phrasal verbs transitivos pueden colocar un objeto en dos lugares.
I picked the clothes up from the floor.
I picked up the clothes from the floor.
7.- NOTA: Aunque muchos phrasal verbs pueden colocar al objeto en ambos
lados, se debe poner el objeto entre el verbo y la preposición si el objeto es un
I looked the number up in the phone book.
I looked up the number in the phone book.
I looked it up in the phone book.
I looked up it in the phone number.
EJERCICIO VI.- Completar correctamente las siguientes oraciones con el
phrasal verb que corresponda en cada caso.
EJEMPLO: I’m cold. Do you mind if I turn the air conditioning off?
Turn on, turn down, turn up.
1. - I can hardly hear the radio. Can you ___________ it ____________ a little?
2. - It’s cold in here. I’m going to ____________ the heater _____________?
3. - I thought I could borrow some money from Pete, but I didn’t. I never thought
he would _________________ me ______________.
Give back, hold up, hand in, hang up.
1. - Anne is very upset. When she was walking home last night, two men
__________ her ____________ and took her purse and jewelry.
2. - I’d like to talk longer, but I’d better ____________________. My sister
needs to make a call.
3. - You’d better get started on your report. You know that you have to
___________ it ___________ at 8:30 tomorrow morning.
4. - Don’t forget to ______________ the books _______________ to your
friend. She lent them to you over a month ago.
Call off, put off, put on, point out.
1. - The supervisor had to attend a last minute conference. Due to this, the
inspection were ______________ for next Wednesday morning.
2. - They _____________ a new play at the theatre last weekend. Have you
had a chance to see it?
3. - We don’t have school today. The mayor had to ___________ classes
______________ because of the traffic caused due to the floods.
4. - It is very important that teachers ______________ to their students the new
theories and its applications.
Read over, give away, do over, make out.
1. - You shouldn’t _______________ those newspapers ______________; they
still have valuable information regarding the research you have been working
2. - Tom’s writing is very well. I almost need a magnify glass to
________________ it ____________________.
3. - I need to ________________ the report that Ben gave me this morning
before I send it to the supervisor.
4. - Oh, no! I forgot to save my report before I turned the computer off! Now I’ll
have to _________________ it all ___________________ again!
Set up, talk over, try on, try out.
1. - Jim was telling me that he hopes his parents _____________ their
relationship problems _____________ before they get divorced.
2. - After shopping all morning for shoes. I feel much too tired to
_______________ the pants ________________ before buying them.
3. - _________________ this message chair – it feels great!
4. - I can’t believe it! My mom __________________ me _________________
with her friend’s son.
4.1. –Describirá las funciones de los recursos tecnológicos
cotidianos, utilizando correctamente los gerundios e infinitivos.
Los siguientes verbos, tienen la característica de ser seguidos por otro verbo, la
estructura es usualmente: verbo + -ing:
Stop, finish, delay, enjoy, mind, suggest, dislike, imagine, regret, admit, deny,
avoid, consider, involve, practice, miss, postpone, risk.
Stop talking!
I’ll do the shopping when I’ve finished cleaning the apartment.
I don’t miss working late every night.
Have you ever considered going to live in another country?
I can’t imagine George riding a motorcycle.
When I’m on vacation, I enjoy not having to get up early.
Las siguientes expresiones también toman la forma –ing:
Give up = stop
go on = continue
put off = postpone
Keep ó keep on = do something continuosly or repeatedly.
Are you going to give up smoking?
He kept (on) interrupting me while I was speaking
Normalmente no se puede utilizar el infinitivo (to do / to dance, etc.) después
de estos verbos y expresiones:
I enjoy dancing. (not to dance)
Would you mind closing the door? (not to close)
Jill suggested going to the movies. (not to go)
Con algunos de los verbos anteriormente señalados (especialmente: admit,
deny, regret, y suggest) se puede también utilizar una estructura that…
He denied that he had stolen the money. (or denied stealing)
Jill suggested that we go to the movies. (or suggested going)
EJERCICIO I.- Completar las siguientes oraciones con los siguientes verbos:
try, wash, steal, meet, eat, look, splash, write, go, make, drive, be run,
EJEMPLO: Do you miss playing tennis every afternoon?
1. - Could you please stop ________________ so much noise?
2. - I don’t enjoy ___________________ letters.
3. - Does your job involve _________________ a lot of people?
4. - I considered _______________ the job, but in the end I decided against it.
5. - If you use the shower, try and avoid ________________ water on the floor.
6. - Jack gave up _____________ to be an actor and decided to become a
7. - Have you finished ______________ your hair yet?
8. - The phone rang while Ann was having dinner. She didn’t answer it; she just
went on ____________________.
9. - She admitted ________________ the car but denied ______________ it
10.- Why do you keep on _________________ at me like that?
11.- They had to postpone ________________ away because their son was
12.- If you cross the street without looking, you risk _______________ over by
a car.
EJERCICIO II.- Leer cada oración y escribir una segunda oración con el mismo
Do you have to travel in your job?
Does your job involve travelling?
He is sorry now that he didn’t study harder when he was in college.
He now regrets not studying harder when he was in college.
1. - Maybe I’ll go out this evening.
I wouldn’t mind __________________________________________________.
2. - Are you sorry you didn’t take the job?
Do you regret ___________________________________________________?
3. - Why don’t you go away tomorrow instead of today?
Why don’t you put off ____________________________________________?
4. - It’s not a good idea to travel during the rush hour.
It’s better to avoid _______________________________________________.
5. - Could you turn the radio down, please?
Would you mind _________________________________________________?
6. - The driver of the car said it was true that he didn’t have a license.
The driver of the car admitted ______________________________________.
7. - Sue said, “Let’s have fish for dinner.”
Sue suggested _________________________________________________.
EJERCICIO III.- Elaborar oraciones personales utilizando –ing.
EJEMPLO: I really enjoy going for long walks in the country.
1. - On weekends I enjoy __________________________________________.
2. - I dislike _____________________________________________________.
3. - I often regret ________________________________________________.
4. - Learning English involves ______________________________________.
5. - I think people should stop ______________________________________.
Los siguientes verbos son seguidos por otro verbo, la estructura es
usualmente: verbo + infinitivo.
Agree, refuse, promise, threaten, offer, attempt, manage, fail, decide, plan,
hope, appear, seem, pretend, afford, forget, learn (how), dare, tend, need,
mean, intend.
It was late, so we decided to take a taxi home.
I like George, but I think he tends to talk too much.
How old were you when you learned to drive? (or learned how to drive)
They agree to lend me some money when I told them the position I was in.
He’s lazy. He needs to work harder.
I’m sorry. I didn’t mean to hurt you.
Observe estos ejemplos con la forma negativa not to…
We decided not to go out because of the weather.
She pretended not to see me as she passed me on the street.
Con otros verbos importantes no se puede utilizar el infinitivo. Por ejemplo:
think y suggest:
Are you thinking of buying a car? (not thinking to buy)
Jill suggested going to the movies. (not suggested to go)
Después de los siguientes verbos se puede utilizar una pregunta de
información ( what/where/how, etc.) + infinitivo: ask, decide, know,
remember, forget, explain, understand.
Tom explained (to me)
Have you decided
I don’t know
We asked
to change
to go
to go
to get
the tire on the car.
for your vacation?
to the party or not.
to the station.
Also: show/tell/ask someone what/how/where to do something:
Can someone show me how to change the film in this camera?
Ask Jack. He’ll tell you what to do.
EJERCICIO IV.- Completar cada oración con un verbo apropiado.
EJEMPLO: Don’t forget to mail the letter I gave you.
1. - Tom refused ________________ me any money.
2. - Jill has decided not _____________ a car.
3. - The thief got into the house because I forgot _______________ the
4. - There was a lot of traffic but we managed _____________ to the airport in
5. - One day I’d like to learn _______________ an airplane.
6. - I shouted to him. He pretended not _______________ me, but I’m sure he
7. - Why hasn’t Sue arrived yet? She promised not ________________ late.
8. - Our neighbour threatened _________________ the police if we didn’t stop
making noise.
9. - Ann offered _____________ care of our children while we were out.
10. - The teacher was very strict. Nobody dared _______________ during his
11.- I don’t need _____________ to the meeting, do I?
12.- Oh no! I meant _______________ some eggs, but I forgot.
EJERCICIO V.- Elaborar oraciones con: seem y appear.
Is he waiting for someone?
Has she lost weight?
He appears to be waiting for someone.
She seems to have lost weight.
1. - Is Tom worried about something?
He seems ________________________________________________.
2. - Does Ann like Jack?
She appears ______________________________________________.
3. - Is that man looking for something?
He appears _______________________________________________.
4. - Has that car broken down?
It seems _________________________________________________.
5. - Have they gone out?
They appear ______________________________________________.
EJERCICIO VI.- Elaborar oraciones con el infinitivo.
EJEMPLO: This evening I plan to go to the theater.
1. - Not many people can afford __________________________________.
2. - I would like learn ___________________________________________.
3. - One day I hope ____________________________________________.
4. - I wouldn’t dare ____________________________________________.
5. - Sometimes I tend __________________________________________.
6. - I intend __________________________________________________.
4.2.- Describirá características de objetos así como estados de
ánimo, mediante el uso de participios y adjetivos.
Existen muchos pares de adjetivos con terminación en –ing y –ed. Por
ejemplo: boring y bored. Estudiemos esta situación:
Jane ha estado haciendo el mismo trabajo por mucho tiempo. Todos los días
ella hace exactamente lo mismo una y otra vez. Ella no disfruta más esta
actividad y le gustaría hacer algo diferente.
Alguien es –ed si algo (ó alguien) es –ing. O, si algo es –ing, te convierte en ed.
Jane is bored because her job is boring.
Jane’s job is boring, so Jane is bored. (not Jane is boring)
Analicemos estos ejemplos:
Someone is interested because something (or someone) is interesting:
Tom is interested in politics. ( not interesting in politics)
Tom finds politics interesting.
Are you interested in buying a car?
Did you meet anyone interesting at the party?
Someone is surprised because something is surprising:
Everyone was surprised that she passed the exam.
It was surprising that she passed the exam.
Someone is disappointed because something is disappointing:
I was disappointed with the movie. I expected it to be much better.
The movie was disappointing. I expected it to be much better.
Someone is tired because something is tiring:
He is always very tired when he gets home from work.
He has a very tiring job.
Otos pares de adjetivos con terminación en –ing y –ed son: fascinate, excite,
amuse, amaze, astonish, shock, disgust, embarrass, confuse, horrorify,
terrify, frighten, depress, worry, annoy, exhaust, satisfy.
EJERCICIO VII.- Completar dos oraciones por cada situación. Utilizar un
adjetivo con terminación en –ing ó –ed para completar cada oración.
EJEMPLO: The movie wasn’t as good as we had expected.
The movie was disappointing.
We were disappointed with the movie.
1. - It’s been raining all day. I hate this weather.
This weather is ________________________________________________.
This weather makes me _________________________________________.
2. - Astronomy is one of Tom’s main interest.
Tom is ____________________________________________ in astronomy.
He finds astronomy very ________________________________________.
3. - I turned off the television in the middle of the program.
The program was ______________________________________________.
I was ________________________________________________________.
4. - Ann is going to Indonesia next month. She has never been there before.
She is really ___________________________________________ about going.
It will be an ______________________________________ experience for her.
5.- Diana teaches young children. It’s hard job. (axhaust-)
She often finds her job ___________________________________________.
At the end of the days´s work she is often ____________________________.
EJERCICIO VIII.- Seleccionar el adjetivo correcto.
EJEMPLO: I was disappointing/disappointed with the movie. I had expected
it to be better.
1. - We were all horrifying/horrified when we heard about the disaster.
2. - It’s sometimes embarrassing/embarrassed when you have to ask people
for money.
3. - Are you interesting/interested in soccer?
4. - I enjoyed the soccer game. It was very exciting/excited.
5. - It was a really terrifying/terrified experience. Afterwards everybody was
very shocking/shocked.
6. - I had never expected to be offered the job. I was really amazing/amazed
when I got it.
7. - The kitchen hadn’t
8. - Do you get embarrassing/embarrassed easily?
EJERCICIO IX.- Completar las oraciones con un adjetivo con terminación –ing
ó –ed . La(s) primer(as) letra(s) del adjetivo es (son) dada(s).
Jane finds her job boring . She wants to do something different.
1. - I seldom visit art galleries. I’m not very in____________________ in art.
2. - We went for a very long walk. It was very ti_________________.
3. - Why do you always look so b_____________? Is your life really so
4. - He’s one of the most b____________ people I’ve ever met. He never stops
talking and never says anything in________________.
5. - I was as_____________ when I heard they were getting divorced. They had
always seemed so happy together.
6. - I’m starting a new job next week. I’m really ex______________ about it.
4.3.- Describirá diferentes acciones a tomar ante situaciones
hipotéticas, usando el segundo condicional.
Las cláusulas de condición improbable, se forman de la siguiente manera:
1.- El verbo de la oración principal esta en futuro irreal (would)
2.- El verbo de la oración subordinada condicional esta en pasado.
If he went to London he would see his sister.
Si el fuera a Londres el vería a su hermana.
If you came into my garden my dog would bite you.
Si tú entraras a mi jardín mi perro te mordería.
NOTA: En la oración principal se puede utilizar “could” como auxiliar.
If he went to London he could see his sister.
Si el fuera a Londres el podría ver a su hermana.
If you came into my garden my dog could bite you.
Si tú entraras a mi jardín mi perro podría morderte.
Es importante señalar que en este tipo de cláusulas cuando se utiliza el
pasado de “to be” solo existe “were” para todas las personas, a diferencia de
“was y were” que se utiliza en las oraciones de pasado de “to be”.
If I were you, I would buy this car.
Si yo fuera tu compraría este carro.
EJERCICIO X.- Completar las cláusulas de condición improbable con los
verbos en paréntesis.
EJEMPLO: If I (be) were you, I (buy) would buy the car.
1.- Jim doesn´t study hard. If he (study) ___________ harder, he (get)
______________ better grades.
2.- The weather isn´t nice. I (take) ___________ a walk if the weather (be)
__________ nice.
3. - My wife and I want to buy a house, but houses are too expensive. We (buy)
__________ a house if we (have) __________ enough money for a down
4. - If money (grow) ___________ on trees, all of us (be) ____________ rich.
5. - Life (be)___________ boring if everyone (have) ____________ the same
opinions about everything.
6. - If I (be) ___________ you, I (tell) ____________ Brian the truth.
7. - Airplane tickets are expensive. If they (be) _____________ cheap, I (fly)
______________ to Singapore for the weekend.
8. - I wish I had a camera. I (take) ______________ a picture of the sunset
tonight if I (have) ______________ a camera.
9. - The student cafeteria is relatively inexpensive, but the food isn’t very good. I
(eat) _____________ there all the time if the food (be) ______________ better.
10.- Sometimes our teacher gives surprise quizzes. If I (teach)
______________ this English class, I (give, not) _____________ surprise
EJERCICIO XI.- Que harías tú si fueras ...? Practicar elaborando cláusulas de
condición improbable con las siguientes suposiciones.
EJEMPLO: What would you do if you were a cat?
If I were a cat, I would (chase mice, jump into your lamp, etc.)
1. - a bird
2. - a mountain climber
3. - a teacher
4. - a surgeon
5. - a mouse
6. - an astronaut
7. - a billionaire
8. - nine years old
9. - a police officer
10.- a photographer
EJERCICIO XII.- Completar las siguientes cláusulas de condición improbable
con los verbos que se le dan en cada una de ellas.
EJEMPLO: If you played every day, you (be) would be the best.
1. - If cities (have) ___________ more parks, people would be happier.
2.- If modern cities were smaller, they (be) ____________ much nicer.
3. - If there (be, not) ____________ more job opportunities in large cities,
farmers would not leave their fields.
4. - If fewer people (come) ____________ to work in the city, the transportation
problems would disappear.
5. - If all factories (have) __________ anti-pollution devices, pollution would
6. - If the public transport services were better, fewer people (buy) __________
a car.
7. - If people drove more carefully, there (be) ____________ fewer road
8. - If there (be) ____________ more trees in big cities, people could breath
more fresh air.
9. - People (have) ___________ better homes to live in if old buildings were
10.- If new housing developments (be built) __________ near industrial centres,
people would not have to travel long distances.
If you look up the word VITAMIN in a dictionary you will find that really it is a
combination of two words: VITA – life and AMINE – a type of nitrogen
compound. The reason for this association with life is quite clear; vitamins are
essential to good health and normal physical development. Their existence was
discovered in 1911 and since then the existence of twenty-five of these
substances has been establish, although the function of some of them still
remains a mystery. Vitamins are usually identified by letters of the alphabet,
according to the order in which they were discovered. They are divided into two
groups: Those soluble in fat, and those in water. If you read on you will find
specific information about a number of vitamins or vitamin complexes.
Vitamin A
This vitamin includes at least four fat-soluble substances which are found in:
milk, cream, butter, eggs, fish-liver oils and vegetables. If we did not have
sufficient amounts of this vitamin then, as children, our growth would be
affected and, as adults, we would not develop defences against infectious
diseases. Also, our skin would not be soft and our eyes could not adjust to
Vitamin B Complex
This group is comprised of more than twelve identified water-soluble
Vitamin B1
This vitamin is found in: yeast, wheat germ, whole grains, cereals, nuts, milk,
eggs, liver, pork and vegetables. However, if we cook food for too long the
vitamin B1 is eliminated. If we did not get enough of this vitamin we would suffer
from loss of appetite, nervous disorders and tiredness.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
This vitamin can be obtained from: meat, liver, fish, poultry, vegetables,
eggs, milk, yeast and wheat-germ. If we suffered from a deficiency of this
vitamin our growth, digestion, use of oxygen and eyes would all be affected.
Vitamin C
This water-soluble vitamin is obtainable from liver, fruit and fresh vegetables.
If we did not receive this vitamin we would suffer from scurvy, a disease which
used to be common among sailors who spent long periods at sea without eating
fresh fruit and vegetables. We need vitamin C to keep out teeth, gums and
bones in good condition, as well as to help cuts and burns to heal.
Vitamin D
This vitamin is composed of a small number of fat-soluble substances (for
sources see those listed under vitamin A). Our bodies obtain a large part of their
vitamin D requirements from the sun’s rays. If we were deprived of this vitamin
we would suffer from Ricketts, a very common disease among children, which
prevents the bones from hardening. Vitamin D contributes to the development
of strong teeth and bones.
Vitamin E
This fat-soluble vitamin is found in: corn, oatmeal, milk, eggs, liver and a
large number of vegetables. It used to be thought that vitamin E prevented
sterility but this function has not been satisfactorily demonstrated.
Vitamin K
This is a fat- soluble substance present in vegetables such as: cauliflower,
cabbage and tomatoes; it is also found in eggs. Our blood would not clot if we
did not receive this vitamin.
One could also mention the remaining members of the vitamin B complex:
pyroxene, panthothenic and par-amino benzoic acids, biotin (otherwise known
as vitamin H), inositol, folic acid, chlorine, strepogenin, lyxoflavin and vitamin
B12. This list might well be added to in the future. Finally, there is vitamin P
whose existence is suspected but has not been proved.
Although, as their name suggests, vitamins are essential, a word of warning
is necessary at this point. Our bodies require only very small amounts of these
substances and we will obtain these if we eat a balanced diet which includes
the foods mentioned earlier.
EJERCICIO XIII.- Encontrar las cláusulas del texto anterior y convertirlas a
cláusulas de condición improbable.
EJEMPLO: If you read on you, you will find specific information.
If you read on you, you would find specific information.
1. - __________________________________________________________.
2. - __________________________________________________________.
3. - __________________________________________________________.
4. - __________________________________________________________.
5. - __________________________________________________________.
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